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Research at Riggs

The Austen Riggs Center, through the Erikson Institute, has a strong historical commitment to research. Research at Riggs grows out of our work with our patients and our practice-based learning about complex psychopathology, human development, social processes, and psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

We see research as a two-way endeavor that extends our clinical knowledge into related fields and brings knowledge back into the institution to deepen and refine our understanding and clinical practice.

These investigations involve the use of innovative methods and collaborative partnerships with other health care organizations to better understand the sociocultural, interpersonal, developmental, and biological factors that impact individuals contending with adversity, at the Austen Riggs Center and beyond.

Our current research projects are described below:

Dr. Jane G. Tillman Talks About Research at the Austen Riggs Center

Current Research

 

Loneliness and Mental Health During COVID-19: A Follow-Up Study (IRB# 2020-005)

Principal Investigator: Katie Lewis, PhD

Collaborating Investigators and InstitutionsJane Tillman, PhD, ABPP; Fiona Brown, and Michael Roche, PhD (Penn State-Altoona)

This is a follow-up to protocol 2020-003 (see below for full details). 175 of those who participated in that original study will be re-contacted to capture long-term follow up data on the impact of social distancing on mental health.

Loneliness and Social Distancing (IRB # 2020-003)

Principal Investigator: Katie Lewis, PhD

Collaborating Investigators and Institutions: Jane Tillman, PhD, ABPP; Fiona Brown, and Michael Roche, PhD (Penn State-Altoona)

Global social distancing (SD) requirements are proving essential in limiting the potential spread of the COVID-19 virus. However, social distancing may carry negative, currently unknown consequences for mental health. The ways in which individuals manage SD likely depends on a variety of currently unknown factors, including both psychological and situational experiences. At present, no research studies exist that have explicitly addressed the impact on mental health or changes in symptoms over time during extended periods of SD. This exploratory study will examine the psychological symptoms and experiences of individuals during SD, and how/whether these factors change over time, in a sample of adults recruited across diverse settings. It aims to generate valuable knowledge for public health services and program developers, who may leverage such information for implementing social intervention programs and other resources in future public health crises or other situations requiring SD. Learn more.

Eating Disorders And Metacognition: Investigating Metacognitive Strengths And Weaknesses Over Time (IRB #2020-001)

Principal Investigator: Marilyn Charles, PhD, ABPP

Collaborating Investigators and Institutions: David Neal, PsyD, Sandra Delgado, PsyD, Patrick Kelley (ARC); Maria Miron, MA and psychology student team (Universidad de Monterrey, Mexico)

Previous research has identified metacocognitive vulnerabilities in persons with eating disorders, such as a link between diagnoses of bulimia and borderline personality disorder.  In an effort to build on this area of research, the study team examine clinical interviews captured over time with individuals diagnosed with eating disorders. Which capacities are most and least likely to change over time?  Do eating disorders develop on a continuum, and what is the impact on this of psychodynamic psychotherapy? This study aims to add to the growing literature on eating disorders and on this topic and potentially to contribute to developing treatment interventions for this population.

Addiction and PTSD: Investigating Links between Substance Use and the Intergenerational Transmission of Trauma (IRB# 2019-008)

Principal Investigator: Marilyn Charles, PhD, ABPP

Collaborating Investigators and Institutions: David Neal, PhD, Patrick Kelley (ARC); Karla Gomez (Chicago Center for Psychoanalysis), Leslie Thompson, MA (University of West of England)

This study aims to add to the body of existing research data that has supported psychoanalytic and attachment theories that link the intergenerational transmission of trauma and developmental deficits in relation to affective self-regulation, coping, and reflective capacities. It looks at trajectories over time through analysis of interviews from the Follow Along Study using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale to code these.

Publications:

  1. Gomez, KL and Charles, M (2020) Mythological Bridge Between intergenerational Transmission of Unmourned Loss. The Psychoanalytic Review. Vol 107. No2,pp.153-174.

Adverse Life Events and Sleep (ALES) - subject screening for participation in studies 2016-001 (EMA) and 2019-006 (NIMH) (IRB# 2019-007)

Principal Investigator: Katie Lewis, PhD

Collaborating Investigators and Institutions: Jane Tillman, PhD, ABPP, Jeremy Ridenour, PsyD (ARC), Fiona Brown (ARC); Nicole Cain, PhD (Rutgers University); Kevin Meehan, PhD (LIU Brooklyn); Michael Roche, PhD (Penn State-Altoona)

This study serves the dual purpose of assisting with determining eligibility of subjects for inclusion in two studies - ARC IRB# 2016-001 and 2019-006. This protocol will additionally enable the collection of important details of diagnosis at time of participation and past adverse life experiences in participants for both studies.

Influence of Daily Disruptions in Sleep and Self-Regulation on Proximal Risk for Suicide (IRB# 2019-006)*

*Rutgers University is IRB of record

Principal Investigator: Nicole Cain, PhD (Rutgers University)

Collaborating Investigators and Institutions: Katie Lewis, PhD (ARC); Kevin Meehan, PhD (LIU Brooklyn)

This study evaluates the hypothesis that disturbed sleep will carry deleterious effects on subsequent days’ interpersonal functioning, leading to proximal increases in suicidal ideation and behavior, as buffered by effortful control. Mobile assessment methods will be used, to allow for more precise temporal resolution and consideration of situational contexts in mapping the interactive role of arousal, self-regulation, interpersonal functioning, and suicidal ideation and behavior unfolding in the real time context of everyday life.

Ongoing Data Collection on Psychological Assessment for Patients at the Austen Riggs Center (IRB# 2019-004)

Principal investigator: Jeremy Ridenour, PsyD

Collaborating Investigators and Institutions: Katie Lewis, PhD (ARC)

Creating a database of psychological assessment data for all patients treated at ARC. There are three goals: 1) Increase our knowledge about the patients we are treating, 2) Develop "local norms" so we could make finer discriminations between different patient groups and enhance our evaluation and treatment of complex psychiatric patients, 3) Develop a resource that will lay the foundation for future assessment research.

The Impact of Object Relations, Personality, and Cognitive Functioning on Changes in Psychotherapy (IRB#2019-001)

Principal Investigator: Steve Ackerman, PhD

Collaborating Investigators and Institutions: Matthew Baity, PhD, Carlos Oliveira (Alliant International University)

Using the Follow Along Study archival data, this study examines if and whether psychological testing data can inform how well a patient does in long-term psychotherapy – i.e., is there information gathered before treatment that can be used to identify patients who might and might not be able to change? The study will examine specific test score data from patients that have completed clinical research assessment tests of interest.

A Pilot Study on Natural Language Processing to Differentiate Patients with Psychosis from Those with Mood Disorders and Personality Disorders (IRB# 2018-002)

Principal Investigator: Marilyn Charles, PhD, ABPP

Collaborating Investigators and Institutions:  David Hafner, PhD (Universidad de Monterrey, Mexico), Alejandro Villegas, PhD (CentroGeo, Mexico), Edwyn Bobadilla, PhD (CINVESTAV, Mexico)

A pilot study into the feasibility of using computational algorithms of Natural Language Processing (NLP) to analyze the free speech of psychiatric patients to detect language-based variables. This first step involves gathering data, the second entails selecting the right NLP techniques, and the third deploying software tools to instantiate metrics and models. The data will be obtained from de-identified information from the Guided Clinical Interview (GCI), the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, and the Dynamic Interview, commencing with a pilot study of 12 subjects. The NLP analyses is to be conducted in part at Universidad de Monterrey, CentroGeo and CINVESTAV, three research sites in Mexico.

Presentations

Hafner, D.Z. et al. (2019) Grammatical Pattern Recognition for Patients Suffering From Formal Thought Disorder. Presented at the Association for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society Conference.   

Follow-Up to the States of Mind Study (IRB# 2017-004)

Principal Investigator: Jane Tillman, PhD, ABPP

Collaborating Investigators and Institutions: Katie Lewis, PhD, Maria Ciarleglio, PhD, Saksham Chandra (Yale School of Public Health)

Follows up on Dr. Tillman’s previous study “States of Mind” to identify potential predictors of suicidal behavior. Dr. Tillman is following up with the original participant cohort of 131 subjects (recruited from the ARC patient population), to have them repeat the original measures and survey and determine any changes in suicidal behavior risk.

Presentations 

Tillman, J (2019). Trajectories of Risk and Resilience: a longitudinal follow-up study of high-risk psychiatric patients. Presented at the American Association of Suicidology Annual Meeting - Winner, Best Poster.

Tillman, JG (2019).  Four R’s that Protect Against Suicide: Relationships, Resilience, Reasons for Living, and Restriction of Access to Lethal Means.  Presentation at the Austen Riggs Centennial Conference.

Follow Along Study (FAS) Data Repository (IRB# 2017-001)

Principal Investigator: Marilyn Charles, PhD, ABPP

The Follow Along Study (FAS) was a naturalistic, observational research study of 226 patients admitted to ARC between September 1992 and August 2001. FAS collected data from patients in residential treatment and after discharge, until 2008, a total of 16 years, from in-person and telephone interviews, and clinical tests and surveys, providing multiple time points for the same measure. With IRB oversight, Dr. Charles serves as Principal Investigator of the FAS Archive, which is providing a useful study data set for a number of research studies listed here, and for researchers both within and outside ARC.

Salience and Impact of Interpersonal Experiences on Maladaptive Thoughts and Behaviors: An Object Relations EMA Study (IRB# 2016-001 and 2016-001S)

Principal Investigator: Katie Lewis, PhD

Collaborating Investigators and Institutions: PI: Jane Tillman, PhD, ABPP, Jeremy Ridenour, PsyD (ARC), Fiona Brown (ARC); Nicole Cain, PhD (Rutgers University); Kevin Meehan, PhD (LIU Brooklyn); Michael Roche, PhD (West Chester University); Michael Prezioso, PhD (Saratoga County Mental Health Center)

Aims to understand the ebb and flow of self-destructive impulses and suicidal thoughts and behaviors over time. It remains unclear why certain situations may be particularly salient in triggering self-harming impulses in some individuals and not others. This study uses ecological momentary assessment (EMA), a self-reporting tool operating through a phone app, to have ARC patient volunteers report their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors at multiple times over the course of a day and over multiple weeks. Dr. Lewis aims to recruit 150 subjects over 5 years from Riggs patients, and, as of June 2019, from the Saratoga County Mental Health Center.

Publications

  1. Lewis, K., Ridenour, J. (2019). The integration of EMA and single-occasion multimethod assessment data for a complex psychiatric patient. Assessment, Jan 24.

Presentations

  1. Lewis, K., Ridenour, J. (2019). Social cognitive impairments in suicidal and self-harming individuals: preliminary findings from a mixed-methods study. Presented at the American Association of Suicidality Annual Conference.
  2. Lewis, K. (2019). “But I’m not an angry guy:” A multimethod EMA case study of a complex psychiatric patient. Presented at the Society for Personality Assessment Annual Convention.
  3. Lewis, K. (2018). Suicide, psychic pain and interpersonal problems in adults with a history of bullying victimization: a preliminary study using the Brief Bullying Questionnaire. Presented at the American Association of Suicidality Annual Conference.
  4. Lewis, K. (2017). Challenges associated with implementing an ecological momentary assessment protocol in an open residential treatment setting. Presented at Aeschi 9: Suicide Across the Lifespan Conference.

SOM II: Verifying and Expanding the States of Mind Study (IRB# 2015-003)

Principal Investigator: Jane Tillman, PhD, ABPP

Follows up on Dr. Tillman’s previous study “States of Mind” to identify potential predictors of suicidal behavior. Here, in a major study of 305 clinical files, Dr. Tillman is reviewing the clinical records of the original cohort of 131 States of Mind subjects (recruited from the ARC patient population) as well as the records of 174 patients who were in treatment at ARC during the period of the original study but did not participate. The broad goals of this study are to identify further specific factors that link to or are predictive of suicidal ideation or behavior, and to determine if any subjects are now deceased, and if so, if this may be identified as suicide.

Publications from the original states of mind study IRB #2008-002

  1. Lewis, KC, Meehan, KB, Cain, NM, Wong, PS, Clemence, AJ, Stevens, JL, Tillman, JG (2019) Quality of internalized object representations and suicidality in individuals with anaclitic and introjective personality styles. Journal of Personality Disorders, May 14:1-16. DOI: 10.1521/pedi_2019_33_435
  2. Tillman, JG, Clemence, AJ, Hopwood, CJ, Lewis, KC, Stevens, JL (2017). Suicidality in high-risk psychiatric patients: the contribution of protective factors. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 80 (4): 357-373. DOI: 10.1080/00332747.2017.1296309
  3. Tillman, JG, Clemence, AJ, Cree, R, Lewis, KC, Stevens, JL, Reiss, DE (2017). The persistent shadow of suicide ideation and attempts in a high risk group pf psychiatric patients: a focus for intervention. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 77: 20-26. DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2017.05.005
  4. Lewis, KC, Meehan, KB, Cain, NM, Wong, PC, Clemence, AJ, Stevens, JL, Tillman, JG (2015). Impairments in object relations and chronicity of suicidal behavior in individuals with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 30 (1): 19-34. DOI: 10.1521/pedi_2015_29_178
  5. Lewis, KC, Meehan, KB, Tillman, JG, Cain, NM, Wong, PC, Clemence, AJ, Stevens, JL (2014). Impact of object relations and impulsivity on persistent suicidal behavior. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 62: 485-494. DOI: 10.1177%2F0003065114539007

 

Closed Research Projects

Projects marked ** utilize data from the Follow Along Study Data Repository

IRB # and Closure Date Principal Investigator and Research Team Protocol Description Publications and Presentations
2018-006 (closed 8/26/20) PI: Jeremy Ridenour; Research Team: Seth Pitman,  Dan Knauss, Katie Lewis (ARC); Caleb Seifert (University of Michigan); Michelle Stein (Massachusetts General Hospital) Collecting Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale – Global Method (SCORS-G) Data from the Thematic Apperception Test for Patients Admitted 2015-2017 Assembling a database to explore how ARC patients experience interpersonal challenges in comparison to other clinical samples, and also how structural elements of their internalized object representations change over the course of time and treatment. This study is rating all Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) records for patients admitted to the Austen Riggs Center from 2015-2017 using the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale – Global Method (SCORS-G) as well as ratings collected from newly admitted patients from 2018 onwards. SCORS-G assesses object relations and cognitive and affective dimensions of social cognition which may help indicate a link with risk of engagement in suicidal and self-harming behaviors as well as significant improvements in psychiatric functioning over a five year period. This database will provide a platform for future research.

Ridenour, J, Lewis, K., Siefert, C., Stein, M. B. (2019) Card Pull on Complex Psychiatric Patients in a Residential Setting. Presented at Society for Personality Assessment Annual Convention.

Churchill, H; Ridenour, J (2019) Coming together through falling apart: using psychological assessment within a developmental framework to assess change. Rorschachiana 40(2)151-168
2019-005 (closed 5/29/20) PI: Katie Lewis; Research Team: Seth Pitman; Michael Roche (Penn State University  - Altoona) Assessment of Characterological Change Over a Year in Treatment Utilized multimethod, multi-timepoint assessment data to construct a person-specific model of change in relational functioning in a single patient enrolled in related study IRB#2016-001.  1. Lewis, K., Ridenour, J., Pitman, S., Roche, M. (under review). Evaluating Stable and Momentary Expressions of Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder: A Multimethod EMA Case Study. Assessment (ASMNT-20-1097). 2. Lewis, K. (2020). Exploring the application of research-based personality assessment and EMA in the longitudinal assessment of therapeutic change. Paper prepared for the Society for Psychotherapy Research Annual Meeting, Amherst MA [conference cancelled]. 3. Ridenour, J. (2020). The Value of Performance-based Data to Understand Developments in Self and Relational Functioning. Paper prepared for the Society for Psychotherapy Research Annual Meeting, Amherst MA [conference cancelled]. 4. Pitman, S. (2020). "Now I feel heard": Integrating multiple perspectives into the psychotherapy of a patient in long-term residential treatment. Paper prepared for the Society for Psychotherapy Research Annual Meeting, Amherst MA [ conference cancelled].
** 2018-009 (closed 5/20/20) PI: Marilyn Charles; Research team: Kai Naor (Bard College at Simons Rock) Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Addiction The character/developmental issues often seen in ARC patients makes it difficult for them to benefit from standard treatment regimens for substance abuse. This study asks if this is due to psychosocial constructions that would benefit from psychosocial rather than behavioral interventions. Uses data from 67 subjects with substance abuse disorders. The case abstract will be reassessed to investigate links between psychopathy, narcissism and addiction, reflective function, character development, and substance abuse.  
2019-009 (closed 3/16/20) PI: Jeremy Ridenour;  Research team: Christina Biedermann (Adler University) Change in the Transgendered Patient: A Multiple Case Study Approach Using Psychological Testing Data This study uses psychological testing data to investigate the nature of therapeutic change in transitioning transgendered patients. The investigators are particularly interested in changes in body and object representations. Rorschach is a particularly useful instrument to investigate changes in a patient's ways of viewing self and others that may not present themselves in self-report or other measures that, in contrast, rely on conscious articulation of complex and often difficult to articulate experiences. There is no existing literature using the Rorschach to investigate these types of changes in this population.  As such, this study is not only exploratory about the nature of change in this population but also about the Rorschach's utility in assessing it.  
**2019-002 (closed 3/9/20) PI: Marilyn Charles; Research Team: Richard Nalbandian (George Fox University) Dissociation And Metacognition:  A Mixed Methods Analysis of PTSD and Dissociative Disorder or PTSD With Dissociative Features To further understand psychological trauma and the effectiveness of intensive-four times per week therapy. Before and after individuals go through treatment, examining the subjects' capacity to think about their own and others' thinking and/or mental states. Understanding the specific disruptions in reflective capacity in a population that suffers psychological trauma may illumine important knowledge into the causes and treatment of this particular mental health disorder. Additionally, the study will track themes of psychological disconnection versus connection in both beginning and ending the course of intensive therapy. Submitted: Dissociation and Metacognition:  A Mixed Methods Analysis  (Richard E. Nalbandian,
Marilyn Charles, Nancy Thurston)
2019-003 (closed 2/18/20) IRB of Record: Northwestern University PI: Joan Anzia, Northwestern University; Research Team: Marina Bayeva, Northwestern University/ARC;  Mintz, David Psychiatry residents’ interest in and barriers to practicing psychotherapy after graduation Via survey of graduating fourth-year psychiatry residents in ACGME-accredited U.S. residency programs, goals are: 1) assess graduating psychiatric residents’ interest in practicing psychotherapy after graduation; 2) identify barriers in securing a job supportive of psychotherapy practice; and 3) examine actual job outcomes for graduating residents interested in practicing psychotherapy.  
2018-011 (closed 10/2/19) PI: Seth Pitman; Research Team: Katie Lewis, Jeremy Ridenour Clinical Utility and Received Value of the DSM-5 Levels of Personality Functioning Questionnaire (DLOPFQ) in a Clinically Severe Sample Examines recognized challenges in personality disorder assessment presented by the current diagnostic approaches. Explores the utility of the DSM-5 clinical measure Levels of Personality Functioning Questionnaire (DLOPFQ), a 66-item measure assessing self-direction, identity, empathy, and intimacy. This pilot study will recruit a pilot sample 12 current ARC patients to complete DLOPFQ and report on their experience of completing the measure. Lewis, K. (2019). Associations between AMPD Criterion A constructs and self-destructive impulses in patients attending long-term residential treatment. Presented at the Society for Personality Assessment Annual Convention.
**2011-007 closed 7/24/19 PI: Marilyn Charles; Research Team: David Neal (George Fox University) Risk, Resilience and Reflective Function Exploring improvements that accrue over time in therapy, specifically changes in reflection and metacognition. A small number of patients of at least 1 year’s stay in treatment at ARC were assessed. This study aim was to contribute to addressing an important gap in the literature regarding the efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy.   
2017-007    closed 5/22/19 PI: David Mintz; Research Team: Kate Gallagher, Courtney Littlefield Psychodynamic Psychopharmacology: Phase I - Fidelity Testing A Pilot Study to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed method of fidelity testing of the Manual of Psychodynamic Psychopharmacology at the Austen Riggs Center. The primary aims were twofold: (1) to determine whether the specific recommendations made in the Manual of Psychodynamic Psychopharmacology can be easily employed by prescribers at the Austen Riggs Center, and (2) to assess the feasibility of the proposed method of studying treatment fidelity of this manual at the Austen Riggs Center.   
2018-007      closed 3/25/19 PI: Cathleen Morey; Research Team: Alison Mitchell (University of Maine) System Enactment: How do psychodynamic clinicians understand this phenomenon and its impact on therapeutic processes and organizational climate?     (IRB of Record: Smith College). Research to investigate how psychodynamic clinicians practicing in treatment systems, defined as intensive outpatient treatment programs, residential programs and hospitals, understand the phenomenon of system enactment and its impact on therapeutic processes and organizational climate. System enactments are understood in this study as intense, confusing and emotionally charged clinical encounters between and among staff and patients that are shaped by the complex nexus of intrapsychic, interpersonal and organizational factors of a treatment system. These interactions lead staff to take action that deviates from the therapeutic frame either in the form of doing something (reactivity) or not doing something (withdrawal). System enactments are signified by staff’s clinically uncharacteristic verbal and non-verbal interactions with the patient and others in the treatment system.  The PI conducted qualitative, in-depth semi-structured interviews with 20-24 psychodynamic systems-based practitioners to gain a textured understanding of the phenomenon of system enactment from their unique knowledge and perspective.  
2015-001 closed 1/2/19 PI: Lee Damsky; Research Team: Katie Lewis; George Bombel, Shweta Sharma (Menninger Clinic) The Overwhelming Object in Suicidal Behavior: Testing an Object Relations Theory of Suicide A pilot study  to test this object relations theory of suicide by assessing whether suicidal and/or self-injurious behavior in psychiatric patients is associated with evidence of an “overwhelming other” in those patients’ psychological testing, as measured by the Mutuality of Autonomy (MOA) scale of the Rorschach. The MOA scale was developed as a measure of the quality of object relations on the Rorschach. Pathological scores on the MOA assess the degree to which a patient’s Rorschach responses depict objects that are controlled, harmed, or obliterated by another object or force. As such, the MOA may be used to operationalize the construct of an “overwhelming object” in the mind, as represented on the Rorschach. MOA scores were compared across four groups of patients: those with no self-injurious or suicidal behavior; those with low lethality suicidal behavior; those with medically serious suicide attempts; and those who have completed suicide.  
2016-005 closed 12/26/18 PI: Donna Elmendorf; Research Team: Andrew Gerber,  Claudia Gold, Kate Jewson, Jessica Vargas; Linda Baxter, Jenna Knauss (Berkshire Healthcare Systems) Discovering Your Baby Project: Prenatal Views and the Newborn Behavioral Observations System as a Tool to Support Parent-Infant Relationships (IRB of Record: Berkshire Healthcare Systems). The objective of this study was to measure the effects of introducing the Newborn Behavioral Observations System, an intervention designed to support early parent-infant relationships, into routine care of newborns and their families at Fairview Hospital, Great Barrington, MA with the hypothesis that offering this intervention at birth and one month of age will support co-parenting and reduce both parenting stress and the risk of postpartum depression. In addition, the investigators hypothesized that the NBO will have an impact on the way the family views the baby. In order to begin to explore this hypothesis the investigators assessed prenatal ideas about the baby and compared them with parents’ view of the actual baby after birth. Because ours is a small community, this was also an opportunity to introduce the intervention to the entire population of new families, both by training local clinicians and nurses, and then by offering it to all families delivering at Fairview. The investigators hope is to develop a model of intervention that can be applied in rural communities throughout the country.  
2017-002 closed 12/17/18 PI: Claudia Gold; Research Team: Donna Elmendorf, Kate Jewson, Jessica Vargas; Linda Baxter, Jenna Knauss (Berkshire Healthcare Systems)  Community Newborn Observation (NBO) Training The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the Newborn Behavioral Observations Training on the practice of those who work with newborns and their parents by assessing both their level of confidence in their interventions as well as their referral practice. By bringing a wide range of clinicians together for two days of learning and thinking, the investigators hoped to 1) create a community-wide “holding environment” that recognizes the significance of early relationships in healthy development, 2) teach clinicians a new way to identify families who are struggling to connect, and 3) facilitate early referrals or “warm handoffs” for those families with stressed early parent – newborn relationships given that infancy is a time of such rapid development.  Gold C, Elmendorf D, Jewson K, Harrison A, Kronborg H, Kristensen I, Vinter M (2018). Nurturing nature at its origin: using the newborn observation (NBO) system to build community around listening to newborns and parents.  Presented at World Association for Infant Mental Health Congress. 
2018-001  closed 11/9/18 PI: Andrew Gerber; Research Team: Ben Andrew, Rebecca Coopersmith, Cecilia Faurie, Trent Fowler, Juan Rodriguez-Guzman, Hae-Min Jung, Cathleen Morey, Isobel Torres; Jacqui Kurland (UMass Amherst); Jennifer Michaels, Brien Center  MRI-Based Characterization of Complex Psychopathology (IRB of Record: UMass Amherst). The primary objective of this study was to identify dtructural and functional brain differences that are recognizable and associated with complex psychiatric conditions in individual patients. The secondary objective was to asses the heterogeneity of brain characteristics and measures of patients with the same disorder compared to their clinical asessments. The hypothesis was that, when compared to a healthy control sample, the patient would show differences on brain characteristics correlating with differences in psychological function, as determined by capturing and comparing a broad range of behavioral measures.  Subjects were recruited from the Brien Center mental health clinic on Pittsfield, MA.   
2017-009 (closed 9/21/18) PI: Jeremy Ridenour; Research Team: Destiny Ciecalone, Ashely Hudson, Katie Lewis, John Poston. Comparing Social Cognition between Individuals Diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder and Primary Psychotic Disorders We hypothesize that individuals with psychotic disorders will evidence greater social cognitive difficulties on performance-based tests (i.e. Rorschach Test and Thematic Apperception Test) when compared to individuals with borderline personality disorder. For this study, assessment protocols were selected and analyzed from participants who were in treatment at the Austen Riggs Center between the years of 1996-2016 with specific diagnosed disorders. Ridenour, JM, Lewis, KC, Poston, JM, Ciecalone, DN (2019). Performance-based assessment of social cognition in Borderline versus Psychotic Psychopathology. Rorschachiana 95-111
2017-003 closed 8/22/18 PI: Jeremy Ridenour; Research Team: Christina Biedermann, Spencer Biel, Heather Churchill Evaluating Change in Psychological Testing  The hypothesis of this study was that repeated psychological testing batteries can assess shifts in personality dynamics that illustrate the complexities of change. This study looked at psychologists' inferential processes when interpreting testing data over repeated testing batteries. It used archival testing reports for ~10 patients who have completed three testing batteries.   
2017-005   closed 8/8/18 PI: Amy Hardt Professional Boundaries and Self-Disclosure This qualitative study examined professional boundaries and the challenge of maintaining these for  ARC staff, with regards to patients. This included the use of self-disclosure, and types of information shared, for therapeutic purposes. A brief survey was conducted with ~18 nursing staff to gather data on this topic.  Hardt (2017). Professional Boundaries and Self-Disclosure in the Long-term Residential Psychiatric Setting. Presented at the American Psychiatric Nurses Association Annual Conference. 
2018-008  closed 7/13/18 PI: Katie Lewis Impulsivity and Psychic Pain: Self-Report from Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Depression This exploratory study used archival data from the States of Mind Preceding a Near Lethal Suicide Attempt study to investigate the relationship between impulsivity and psychic pain in patients diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) compared to patients diagnosed with depression. The study looked at how these two diagnoses differ in regards to self-reported impulsivity and psychic pain and will also analyze the overall relationship between these two constructs in the overall sample. The hypotheses were that 1) There will be a positive correlation between impulsivity and psychic pain for all participants regardless of diagnosis; 2) Participants diagnosed with BPD will show significantly higher levels of impulsivity than depressed patients; and 3) depressed patients will show significantly higher levels of Psychic Pain.   
** 2018-005      closed 5/24/18 PI: Seth Pitman; Research Team: Steve Ackerman Exploring the Anaclitic and Introjective Personality Types: What Can We Learn? An investigation to evaluate the relationship between two distinct models of personality among a population of individuals admitted into a residential treatment facility. Measures included the Anaclitic-Introjective Rating Scale (A-I), a clinician-rated measure of relatedness and self-definition, and the NEO 5-Factor Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1989), a self-report measure of personality traits.   
2018-003    closed 5/23/18 PI: Jane Tillman; Research Team: Katie Lewis; Philip Resnik, University of Maryland Computational analysis of online forum data (crowdsourcing data study) The objective of this study was to explore the capabilities of a linguistic analysis software package provided by Thematically Technology, using an exisiting dataset from the University of Maryland.   
2015-002 closed 6/30/17 PIs: 1. Kim Hunter-Schaedle; 2. Katie Lewis Capturing the Patient’s Perspective on Clinical Research Participation, and Creating the Erikson Institute Research Registry This study hypothesized that there are specific reasons why patients would or would not participate in clinical research at ARC, and that if there was a clearer understanding of these then they might be addressed to increase participation in research at Riggs above what has been seen historically. The specific goals were to identify potential blockades to research participation by the Riggs patient community by way of conducting a survey of past and current Riggs patients, and  offer Riggs patient alumni the opportunity to participate in a newly created Erikson Institute Research Registry of former Riggs patients who would be interested to participate in future research studies and may be contacted for future participation.  
2016-002 closed 6/1/17 PI: Jeremy Ridenour; Research Team: Michael Blake, Katie Lewis, Brittany Zimmerman; John Poston (Biola University) Comparing Social Cognition between Individuals Diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder and Primary Psychotic Disorders Using ARC archival projective testing data, this study proposed to evaluate social cognition in individuals with a primary diagnosis of borderline personality disorder versus psychotic disorder. The investigators proposed to utilize established coding systems for the Rorschach and Thematic Apperception Test to compare indicators of social cognition found in patients psychological testing protocols; and to apply Exner's Comprehensive System scoring method to Rorchach protocols and the SCORS global scoring method to TAT protocols.  This was a first in kind study to utilize projective testing data to evaluate differences in social cognition between individuals with a primary diagnosis of borderline personality disorder versus psychotic disorder.    
2015-008 closed 12/9/16 PI: Rachel Rosner (EI Scholar) Aaron T. Beck’s Treatment of a Patient at the Pittsfield Clinic
 
This project began as dissertation research for a Ph.D. in psychology from the History and Theory Area of the Department of Psychology at York University, Toronto, Canada during which Dr. Rosner initiated a correspondence with Dr. Beck, which led to a number of personal interviews. Dr. Beck indicated the existence of a personal collection of papers of which Dr. Rosner later took responsibility for placing in an archive. The hypothesis of this study was that is Dr. Beck’s session notes would reveal that he was using a variety of pragmatic and directive methods derived from mental hygiene and yet consonant with the methods he later developed with Cognitive Therapy. 
 
 
2014-003 closed 12/9/16 PIs: 1. Tom Lusignan, 2. Beth Turner; Research Team: Cathleen Morey, David Rosenthal Dynamic Family Functioning Instrument: A Preliminary Exploration The hypothesis of this study was that unconscious shared defenses used in families regulate family functioning in the domains of affect, autonomy, and structure.  The investigators believed dynamic family interactions within these domains constitute observable clinical phenomenon that is potentially rich data for informing psychodynamic assessment, intervention, and treatment in families.  They surveyed the literature for existing assessment tools capable of capturing dynamic family processes. None accurately reflected their own clinical experience working psychodynamically with families.  With this in mind, the investigators chose to develop their own instrument, drawing from clinical work experiences with contributions from psychodynamic theory, family systems theory, etc. with its emphasis on change to the structure of the system rather than symptom amelioration. Lusignan, TL, Turner, B, Rosenthal, D, Morey C (2015) The dynamic family functioning instrument: a preliminary exploration. Presented at the American Psychoanalytic Association National Meeting.
** 2014-002 closed 12/9/16 PI: Elizabeth Weinberg; Research Team: Tess Lane Short and Long-term Treatment Response in the Psychodynamic Treatment of Patients with Treatment Resistant Depression This study investigated the relationship between events during treatment at ARC, observed changes in mood during treatment, and long-term improvement in mood and psychological function, as demonstrated through rating scales data.    
2014-001 closed 12/9/16 PI: Mark Eliot; Research Team: Kim Hunter-Schaedle, Elizabeth Weinberg Correlation Between Social Dreaming Group and  Staff Meeting There is a long history of communities listening to the dreams of individuals as containing critical information about the current situation of the group to which they belong.  There is also a long history at a psychoanalytic hospital for the staff to meet regularly to apprehend the unconscious forces that are operative at the community level.  The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the dreams of patients and the conscious ideas of members of the staff of at The Austen Riggs Center, a psychoanalytic hospital, about emerging group dynamics during the same time period.    
2015-007 closed 8/9/16 PI: Donna Elmendorf Family of Origin - Birth Stories and Life Purpose Fantasies and Realities: Exploring a Potential Connection to a Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment Outcome The Family of Origin Questionnaire was included in the questionnaire packet for the ‘States of Mind’ study which collected data from 131 patients who were in treatment at ARC over a specified period.  The Family of Origin Questionnaire examine dthe potential links between suicidality and circumstances around birth including factors such as the pregnancy being planned/unplanned, birth trauma for self or mother, familial stressors etc. This protocol aimed to further develop the data collected by coding free text collected and exploring the relationship between coded variables and suicide status, and to better understand the different life trajectories of these two groups.  
2011-001 closed 8/9/16 PIs: 1. Eric Plakun, 2. Elizabeth Weinberg; Research Team: Jennifer Durham-Fowler; Thomas Flanagan; Kate Gallagher; Kim Hunter-Schaedle; Tess Lane  Characterizing Comorbid Diagnosis, Treatment Histories and Longitudinal Outcome ... Mood Disorder Sought to identify the distribution of comorbid diagnoses in patients with a major mood disorder, and to report on the prior treatment history of this gfroup in order to describe "treatment resistance" as applies to patients with sever mood disorders. The investigators also hoped to chart the longitudinal course of dynamic constructs, global functioning, and impairment as a function of prior history of treatment resistance.   
** 2015-006 closed 7/8/16 PI: Steve Ackerman Nature Of Therapeutic Change in the Intensive Psychodynamic Treatment of Individuals with Severe Personality Disturbance Explored the hypothesis that baseline personality factors impact differential rates of change in cognitive/affective representations of self and others, the experience of interpersonal relationships, and cognitive dimensions of social causality reflected in patients’ Relationship Anecdote Paradigm interviews (RAP).  
2015-005 closed 7/8/16 PI: Heather Churchill The Utility of the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index (EII) When Assessing Suicidal Patients The Ego Impairment Index (EII) focuses on reality testing, boundary disturbance, primary process thinking, including aggression and hostility, and the quality of representations of self and other. Given this focus, it may be a useful indicator of suicide potential.  This study proposed to look at the EII in four groups of subjects from the ARC patient population who have i) completed suicide; ii) have a history of medically serious suicide; iii) are self-harming or iv) patients who are non-self-harming patients. The hypothesis is that those with a history of suicide attempts will have a higher EII than self-harmers, and those who have completed suicide will have the highest EII of all the groups.   
2015-004 closed 4/13/16 PI: Jeremy Ridenour History of Psychological Testing at Austen Riggs Center Psychological testing reports at ARC have changed over the course of history 1947-2015. This study exploredthis change by analyzing testing reports and conducting oral interviews with significant psychologists involved in the ARC testing service.  Ridenour and Zimmerman (2017) The Evolution of Psychological Testing at the Austen Riggs Center: A Theoretical Analysis. Journal of Personality Assessment, 101: 106-115.
2011-003 closed 4/10/15 PI: Marilyn Charles; Research Team: Michael O'Loughlin (Adelphi University) A qualitative inquiry into the experience of persons with chronic and delimiting psychiatric disabilities: a research proposal This study investigated the antecedents, trajectories and corollaries of psychotic experience, including experiences of treatment.It was planned to collect data from patients at the Fountain House, a mental health facility in New York City and ARC.   
2009-002 closed 4/10/15 PI: Marilyn Charles; Research Team: Jill Clemence Creativity Study/Project  This study investigated ways in which creativity can be distinguished from psychopathology on the Rorschach test. Data from patients was analyzed, from ARC and from the Lucy Daniels Foundation a mental health facility in North Carolina.   
** 2008-001 closed 4/10/15 PI: Marilyn Charles; Research Team: A. Jill Clemence Treatment Paths of the Psychotic Patient Can examination of the psychotic patient's narrative of treatment tell us how thier treatment relates to outcome? This study represented Phase One of a general research agenda for examining the psychotic patient's path through treatment.  The research model used flows from a phenomenological inquiry using patient narratives of psychotherapy to build on previous findings.  
** 2010-003 closed 8/8/14 PI: Katie Lewis; Research Team: Marilyn Charles, A. Jill Clemence Longitudinal Course of Episodic Memory Functioning … This study investigated the relationship of longitudinal changes in episodic memory functioning and psychosocial outcome in a sample of narratives collected from psychotic spectrum patients, studying the Relationship Anecdote Paradigm interviews at intake and each 6 month point after enrollment.   
2008-002 closed 8/8/14 PI: Jane Tillman; Research Team: A. Jill Clemence, Jennifer Stevens States of Mind Preceding a Near Lethal Suicide Attempt

 
 

 

The purpose of this research project was to study patients in a psychiatric hospital who have a prior near-lethal suicide attempt to clarify the affective, cognitive and interpersonal states of mind antecedent to the attempt.   The aim is to understand through demographic information, self-report questionnaires, and audiotaped phenomenological and semi-structured interviews the experience of participants prior to their suicide attempt.  Identifying potential markers in this shift from ideation to action is an aim of this study.

 
 
1. Lewis, K., Meehan, K., Cain, N., Wong, P., Clemence, A.J., Stevens, J., & Tillman, J. (2019). Quality of internalized object representations and suicidality in individuals with anaclitic and introjective personality styles. Journal of Personality Disorders.    
2008-002 closed 8/8/14       2. Tillman, J.G. (2018).  Disillusionment and suicidality: When a developmental necessity becomes a clinical challenge.  Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 66(2), 225-242.  
2008-002 closed 8/8/14       3. Tillman, J.G. (2018).  Developmental and psychosocial aspects of suicide: Treating patients and understanding survivors.  An introduction to the section.  Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, Vol. 71, 1-4.  
2008-002 closed 8/8/14       4. Tillman, J.G., Clemence, A. J., Hopwood, C.J., Lewis, K.C., Stevens, J.L. (2017).  Suicidality in high-risk psychiatric patients: The contribution of protective factors.  Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes. 80:4: 357-373.
2008-002 closed 8/8/14         5. Tillman, J.G., Clemence, A.J., Cree, R., Lewis, K.C., Stevens, J.L., Reiss, D.E. (2017).  The persistent shadow of suicide ideation and attempts in a high-risk group of psychiatric patients: A focus for intervention.  Comprehensive Psychiatry. 77: 20-26.
 
2008-002 closed 8/8/14         6. Lewis, K., Meehan, K., Cain, N., Wong, P., Clemence, A.J., Stevens, J., & Tillman, J. (2015). Impairments in object relations and chronicity of suicidal behavior in individuals with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 30(1), 19-34. 
2008-002 closed 8/8/14        7. Clemence, A.J., Tillman, J.G., Poston, J. (2015).  How to include analytic patients in research and how this affects treatment.  Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 35 (supp1): 135-149. 
 
2008-002 closed 8/8/14        8. Lewis, K., Meehan, K., Tillman, J., Cain, N., Wong, P., Clemence, A. J., Stevens, J.  (2014). Impact of object relations and impulsivity on persistent suicidal behavior. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 62(3), 485-492.   
2008-002 closed 8/8/14       9. Tillman, J.G., Clemence, A.J., Stevens, J.L. (2011).  Mixed methods research design for pragmatic psychoanalytic studies.  Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association.  59(5), p. 1023-1040.
 
2011-006 closed 10/7/13 PI: Elizabeth Weinberg Splitting of the Work Ego in Treatment Pilot study involving archival review of multiple cases that examined specific problematic patterns in therapy identified by Hendin and others chiefly involving difficulties around secretive communication and control struggles in therapy. This study compared a group of patients who have made medically serious suicide attempts with a control group matched for various clinical measures.   
** 2011-005 closed 10/1/13 PI: Katie Lewis   Suicidality and Object Relations in a High Risk Sample of Introjective Anaclitic and Mixed Patients  This protocol aimed to clarify what impact quality of object relations may have on suicidality in patients who demonstrate the personality characteristics of high interpersonal dependency and/or self-criticism.  
2010-005 closed 10/1/13 PI: J. Christopher Fowler; Research Team: Christina Biederman A Prospective Study of Affective States in Suicide-Related Outcomes This protocol assessed risk factors for future suicidal attempts in approximately 150 ARC patients using the Affective States Questionnaire at time 0, 3 months and 12 months.   
2012-004 closed 7/2/13 PI: Y Okamoto (EI Scholar) Empirical Investigation of the Process of Achievement… This protocol empirically investigated the process of achievement of professional identity in clinical psychologists, and handing it over to the next generation.    
2012-003 closed 5/23/13 PI: David Mintz; Research Team: J Mallo Questionnaire Re: Teaching Psychodynamic Psychopharmacology Questionnaire on how residency programs are currently integrating psychosocial concepts into psychopharmacology training, as a springboard for developing or enhancing ways to integrate psychodynamics into psychopharmacology training.   
** 2011-002 closed 4/3/13 PI: J. Christopher Fowler; Research Team: Thomas Flanagan Delineating the Link between Childhood Trauma to Adult Somatization: the role of implicit self-schemas In an effort to clarify the relationship between childhood trauma and somatic complaints in adulthood, this examined how the mechanism of self-schema may contribute to this relationship.   
** 2009-008 closed 4/3/13 PI: J. Christopher Fowler  Global Psychiatric Severity Scale Development In an effort to anatomize the phenomena of complex treatment resistant psychiatric disorders, Fowler, Tillman and Clemence constructed a measure of psychiatric severity of past and current psychiatric disturbance. This protocol uses archival data from the chart review of former and current patients to assess the scale's psychometric properties and to explore the relationships among the GPS variables and patient outcome.  
2009-007 closed 4/3/13 PI: J. Christopher Fowler; Research Team: Gottdiener, Sugarman Risk and Protective Factors for Substance Abuse In an effort to explore the risk factors for future substance abuse, utilized archival medical records to examine diagnostic, symptom, and psychological variables that may lead to vulnerability to abuse substances during the course of patient's residential treatment. Archival data utilized from psychological testing files and medical record review of former and current patients.   
2012-002 closed 2/1/13 PI: David Mintz; Research Team: MD Tulgan, DG Muir Performance Improvement CME in Psychiatry … ARC effort to educate staff, promote behavior change, and foster patient centered care through performance improvement continuing medical education focused on the enhanced provision of informed consent  with a goal of the pursuit of continued competency in practice.   
2012-001 closed 1/4/13 PI: Lee Damsky; Research Team: Christina Biedermann, Spencer Biel A Psychological Autopsy Utilizing Projective Testing Investigation of whether post-mortem analysis of projective testing elucidates intrapsychic processes associated with suicide, by analyzing the testing protocols of 12 patients who committed suicide at ARC over a prior 20 year period. Testing may have been conducted months or years prior to the suicide, but this research explores whether suicidal acts are associated with mental processes, states of mind, and ways of experiencing self and others that are long standing.   
** 2009-001 closed 1/4/13 PI: J. Christopher Fowler  The Prediction and Nature of Therapeutic Change In an effort to explore the differential treatment response of patients engaged in long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy, this protocol studied the baseline characteristics, severity of impairment, and othe predictors of treatment response.   
2011-008 closed 10/3/12 PI: Marilyn Charles; Research Team: Jennifer Durham-Fowler; Michael O'Loughlin (Adelphi University) Capacities for Self-Reflection in Sustained Psychosis: A Pilot Study  A qualitative study recruiting 20 participants from ARC, with a plan to recruit 10 from a second site, participants being in residential or day care treatment for schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders; having a formal diagnosis of schizophrenia or other severe psychosis of adolescence or adulthood; and at least one hospitalization for this.  Participants completed three qualitative interviews and one brief self-report questionnaire.   
** 2011-004 closed 5/3/12 PI: Jane Tillman; Research Team: Thomas Flanagan Religious Affiliation and Suicidal Behavior An exploration of links between suicidal behavior and religious affiliations.   
2011-009 closed 3/7/12 PI: J. Christopher Fowler; Research Team: A Bram Reanalysis of: Fowler (2005) - Assessment of Rorschach Dependency Measures in Female Inpatients Diagnosed With Borderline Personality Disorder.  To explore dimensions of implicit dependency,  a reanalysis of data from 66 subjects previously analyzed and described in a 2005 study, with additional study of nursing staff ratings of particicpants' attachment-seeking behavior.  
2009-003 closed  10/19/11 PI: Cathleen Morey Enactment of Family Dynamics (EFD): Conceptualization and Clinical Application Study to learn more about the clinical phenomenon of enactment of family dynamics by administering a semi-structured interview to clinicians who engage in intensive family treatment.   
** 2010-004 closed 8/1/11 PI: J. Christopher Fowler  Predictors of Change in Severe Personality Disorders Study of baseline personality characteristics, severity of impairment, trauma histories and other predictors of treatment response.   
** 2010-002 closed 7/7/11 PI: A. Jill Clemence A Postdictive Study of Course of Non-Suicidal Self Injury … Examined the postdictive validity of risk factors commonly associated with non-suicidal self-injury as they relate to the continuation of self-harm over the course of treatment using prospective data, identifying indicators of self harm behavior during residential treatment using a selected set of variables drawn from the existing literature.   
2009-004 closed 6/17/11 PI: A. Jill Clemence; Research Team: Marilyn Charles Therapeutic Environment Scale Examined patient-therapist interactions with BPD patients who experience severe emotional distress and behavioral dyscontrol when they encounter an invalidating environment by creating a scale that measures the positive and negative therapist behaviors that occur in sesion, for which no scale existed. A new rating scale was distributed to ARC staff and the Psychodynamic Research listserv to prioritize items and the scale refined from that.  
** 2008-003 closed 6/17/11 PI: A. Jill Clemence Treatment of Refractory NPD An empirical investigation of the treatment resistant narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) patient who are particularly difficult to treat.    
** 2010-001 closed 3/29/11 PI: J. Christopher Fowler  Borderline Personality Disorder and Object Relations: Predicting Self-Injurious and Suicidal Behaviors A study of how the borderline personality disorder (BPD) diagnostic criteria and patients' levels of object relations interact and predict frequency of slef-injurious behaviors and suicide attempts.   
** 1992-001 closed 11/17/10 PI: J Christopher Perry Follow-Along Study The Follow Along Study (FAS) was a naturalistic, observational research study of 226 patients admitted to ARC between September 1992 and August 2001.  FAS collected data from patients in residential treatment and after discharge, until 2008, a total of 16 years, from in-person and telephone interviews, and clinical tests and surveys, providing multiple time points for the same measure.    
2009-009 closed 9/9/10 PI: E Peters Body-Impinging Trauma vs Emotional/ Physical Neglect A pilot study to explore psychological differences between individuals that have endured body-impinging trauma violating the body boundary to varying degrees (sexual abuse, physical abuse, natural disaster, terrorism, criminal assault, etc.) versus those that have endured the traumatic sequelae associated with emotional and physical neglect.   
2009-006 closed 8/20/10 PI: J. Christopher Fowler; Research Team: L Handler, J Smith Reanalysis of Fowler (2004) Phase Model Study Reanalysis of TAT and Rorschach data (Time 1 and Time 2) for 77 study subjects from a prior Phase Model Study. This wil lexamine anumber of Rorschach measures believed to be specifically affected as a result of intensive psychodynamic treatment.   
2009-010 closed 1/19/10 PI: Jane Tillman Consortium for Psychoanalytic Research Consortium for Psychoanalytic Research  
2006-001 closed 12/17/07 PI: Samar Habl Attitudes for use of personal psychotherapy In psychiatric residence training Survey to assess current attitudes and practices regarding the use of personal psychotherapy in psychiatric residency training and the resources available to support residents to that end and the rationale behind the particular stance the program takes.   
1982-001 PI: Nancy Goldberger; Research Team: Daniel Schwartz, Ann Greif, Julia Rothenberg, Paul Burkhardt, Blythe Cliinchy, Mary Belenky, Jill Tarule _ Through interviews, explored how patients experience life at ARC, how they feel about the various ARC programs (community, therapy and activities) and how they feel they have changed in the way they think about themselves and the world since coming to ARC.   

 

 

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